Creature della fine del mondo. Il popolo Yámana/Yagán

Giancarlo Nonnoi

Abstract


Con la scoperta da parte di James Cook di numerosi branchi di mammiferi marini nelle acque intorno a Capo Horn e la successiva esplorazione del Canale Beagle ad opera di Robert Fitzroy, la Terra del fuoco diviene meta di balenieri, missionari, allevatori, cercatori d’oro e avventurieri di ogni sorta. Con l’arrivo dal mare di questi alieni, per gli originari pueblos cazadores y canoeros presenti nelle diverse isole dell’arcipelago ha inizio un brusco mutamento delle loro tradizionali condizioni di vita e un degrado che rapidamente li condurrà all’estinzione. Il restringimento degli spazi vitali, i ripetuti massacri, le gravi carenze alimentari, le malattie e le pestilenze furono cause dirette del collasso demografico. Un esito che i colonizzatori occidentali consideravano ineluttabile e necessario, conseguenza dell’incapacità di queste genti di elevarsi dalla condizione primordiale nella quale erano immobili da millenni. Il saggio si sofferma sulle impressioni e sulle riflessioni sviluppate da Charles Darwin sui Fuegini, e sull’appoggio teorico che esse pur deformate finirono per fornire al formarsi e al diffondersi di tale orientamento intellettuale.

 


Parole chiave


Tierra del fuego; pueblos originarios; Yamana; Darwin; Fireland; Native peoples of South America; Yamana; Darwin

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Riferimenti bibliografici


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13125/medea-3261

NBN: http://nbn.depositolegale.it/urn%3Anbn%3Ait%3Aunica-24049

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